South Central Alaska Seasonal Shuffle

Outside My Office Window 091014

Fall colors in the boreal forest that make up my ‘yard’

After a warm 2016 right through the end of summer, along with a mix of dry late winter and early spring months followed by some very wet summer months, this fall has started off a bit cool which has stoked my hopes for my first ‘real’ Alaskan winter across 2016 – 2017.  I was warned by my neighbors when I first moved up here that winter can, and does, come on quickly and sometimes October sees some serious snow and cold.  In checking the history of October snows in Talkeetna I find the month averages 26.67 cm (10.5”); since relocating in 2013 I’ve seen no more than a dusting of snow in any of the following Octobers.  Maybe this year the weather will revert to more normal temperatures and precipitation..?  One can only hope!

I’ve noticed the gleam in my Alaskan malamute’s (Anana) eyes and the spring in her step with the advent of the repeated hard freezes we experienced last week; she is true to her breed and loves the cooler temperatures of the fall and winter up here.  Five of the last six mornings have seen temps drop to below -2.2° C (28° F); this morning we failed to do so only because of cloud cover and drizzle.  With this said I’d forgotten how cold drizzle/rain can be up here when the air temp is getting close to the freezing mark.  Thanks to said cold rains and some wind 90% of our fall color now carpets the ground; as is typical it was ‘short and sweet’ once again this year.  My male GSD (Qanuk) doesn’t care much about the air temps as long as he can get outside and run; this does become problematic when the air temps drop much below -17.8° C (0° F) but I’ve learned to limit the time he exposes his paw pads to such conditions.  I now have to carry leads for ‘the kidz’ when we take walks because the mushers are out with their teams pulling ATVs.

With the advent of the cooler air I find myself once again preparing for what I’ve come to know as ‘the fall routine’.  This aggregate of necessary activities has been growing each year I’ve lived in semi-rural south central Alaska and has additional items new for the fall of 2016.  There’s the ritual shuffle of items between the unattached shed and the mudroom; my battery charger/starter comes from the shed to the mudroom as does any other equipment I may need to access during the winter since every year thus far the snow pack has been sufficient to block the shed door and require shoveling to access.  The Toyo Monitor furnace checked out just fine and has been running now for six straight days; I do not recall having to do this until early to middle October in the previous falls.  The now almost seven month old gasoline in the two five gallon Jerry cans will be emptied into the gas tank of my Escape and I will refill them, and add a bit of ‘Sta-bil’, within a week.  This ensures that should the power fail I’ll have clean and ready gasoline for the generator.  I’m also trying something new this year; said generator normally sits on the front porch just outside the front door.  Given it is wheeled I plan to unhook the output power line and wheel the unit into my mudroom from November through February when it is really cold.  If I lose power during that time I need only wheel it back out to the front porch, hook up the transfer line and fire it up.  The real plus will involve the latter; it will be at least 12.8° C (55° F) and so should start very easily.  More than once in previous winters I really struggled trying to start the generator when the air temp was well below -17.8° C (0° F).

Time also to lock the windows closed and put up any ‘heat barriers’ in the upstairs ‘spare’ bedroom windows to keep their room temp air from dropping into the single digits Celsius (middle forties Fahrenheit) during cold streaks.  As is common in a house which started as a cabin and grew over time there is no good circulation into any of the second floor rooms although I did open a hole in the master bedroom floor and embedded a fan which I can reverse as needed to either pull the warmer main floor air (said hole is right over the Toyo Monitor) into the bedroom or push the cold air near the floor down into the main room.  I’ve already unhooked and coiled my water hose; it is stored in the shed.  In addition I just removed the last of my window light barriers in the master bedroom; for me this is one of the cardinal signs the fall has arrived.  I’ve pulled together all my cameras and camcorders, cleaned them of the summer’s dust and fully recharged their respective batteries in hopes of being able to catch some auroral shows this winter; I’ve done the same with my headlamp batteries.  I’ve tested the crawl space heater to insure it is functioning; while it runs very little and only when outside temps drop below -26.0° C (-15° F) for a number of consecutive days it is vital to keeping my pipes from freezing.  I’ve also deployed snow shovels to both the front and back porches.

Such chores are really not all that involved but I so enjoy them because they speak to me of the coming snow and cold.  And they also remind me of the rhythms of Mother Nature which are so very predominant in ‘The Great Land’.  Somehow it just feels so ‘right’ to have such activities dictated by the passage of the seasons.  And living in Alaska it is impossible not be aware of the season’s dance…

The ‘Zen’ of Splitting Firewood

‘Oomph, crack, thump, thump’….’Oomph, crack, thump, thump’; to anyone familiar with splitting wood this sequence is all too familiar and often evokes within me serene and pleasant memories. There’s nothing quite like aligning a piece of firewood on one’s splitting block, taking ‘the stance’, grunting as one swings the 12 pound axe in an arc which drives the head into the wood and hopefully results in two pieces, now ready for the stove, falling to the ground on each side of the splitting stand.

While my experience with splitting wood has been very limited I’m getting a lot more since I had a cord of seasoned birch dropped in my driveway a week back. I previously split wood a few times while camping in Michigan and always when staying at ‘Timbers’; that magical cabin in Kachemak Bay State Park. It was expected that as one used some of the previously split wood to warm the cabin in the evening during the day one would replace the wood used by splitting the ample store of firewood on site. I quickly learned I loved the sequence of splitting the logs and especially enjoyed how it loosened up my back. Indeed, I came to notice as I worked away I entered into almost a trance-like state in which all that existed was me, my axe, the splitting stand and the firewood. There was a certain ‘perfection’ that came from the repeated motions not to mention the satisfaction at seeing the wood pile grow in height and length.

I suspect part of the joy, at least for me, is based upon the feeling of accomplishment; of knowing that my immediate work is responsible for transforming logs into firewood suitable for building a fire to use in cooking and/or warming. Perhaps it is the simple, basic nature of the activity that fuels my joy? Seeing the larger logs reduced to smaller and more manageable pieces definitely produces a feeling of being productive but there’s more. I feel an almost ‘genetic memory’ regarding the activity which is entwined with the pleasure of knowing the split wood will soon find a survival use. In the past such labor was indeed a necessity if one was to survive in the less complicated and developed world. Perhaps this is also what feeds my love for the activity..?

All told I find the very actions of splitting firewood to be a balm for my soul; there’s something just so positive about the physical activity and especially the trance-like state I slide into while doing so. And I’ve discovered I must maintain the aforementioned ‘trance-like state’ because if I actively think about where I will place the axe blade I invariably miss. As I continue my struggles to drop weight such exercise is a God Send which is why I decided to have the wood delivered not split and to a place which requires me to load it into my wheel barrow, or just roll the really huge pieces, and haul the wood to my chopping block. This allows me to get my legs and lower back into the activity; the actual splitting of the wood engages my back, shoulders and arms. I will work at this process until I really break a sweat; at this point I’ve learned it is best to take a break. If I’m feeling really energetic I will return to the work after relaxing a bit. Given my slow pace and unperfected technique there is sure to be more firewood to split.

Reflecting upon the entire ‘ritual’ of splitting firewood I see a fairly simple routine albeit one that requires effort and at least a modicum of technique. It produces the firewood I can then place in my stove that provides welcome heat when it is cold as well as produces that ‘oh so pleasant’ view of the flames licking at the wood in the firebox and that delicious odor of burning wood. As someone who is physically lazy by nature this is one effort I do enjoy and this is good because my property currently has a lot of downed birch and spruce trees which I plan to eventually harvest for firewood. And while such work is indeed physical labor it is also the kind of physical labor I truly enjoy. This adds to my enjoyment of my ‘new’ lifestyle here in semi-rural south central Alaska and does offer me a means to continue to work on strengthening my body while generating firewood for my eventual use. If that isn’t a ‘win-win’ situation I do not what is; just another thing to add to the list of most enjoyable benefits of living up here in ‘The Great Land’!

Anana by the wood pile

Anana by the wood pile

Long shadows, Qanuk and firewood

Long shadows, Qanuk and firewood

Anana by the chopping block

Anana by the chopping block

One Year Livin’ ‘Alaska Style’..!

Wednesday, August 6th marked the one year anniversary of my relocation to Alaska and because I have a definite tendency to reflect upon major events in my existence – don’t we all – I thought I’d capture some of these ‘reflections’ along with key learnings across the period.  Understand this is based upon my sixty years of urban existence in the lower 48 which I gladly traded for a semi-rural lifestyle within the outskirts of Talkeetna.  As such my perspectives have shifted quite a bit – in some cases I’d say ‘radically’ – and I’m still integrating many aspects of my new albeit much loved lifestyle.  At this point perhaps some Q & A would be in order; some of these were highlighted in my previous posting:

  • What do I most love about my rural Talkeetna lifestyle? Very tough call…I’d say it’s a tie between the immense silence that can be so deep as to actually have a presence and the ever-present wildlife.  I regularly see moose on my property and all over the area; I’ve seen a few grizzlies at great distance which is how I like to view them but there are regular signs of their passing in this immediate area in the forms of digging, tree marking and scat.  The close proximity of the mighty Alaska Range makes for breath-taking views of North America’s highest peak (Denali or ‘Mt McKinley’ to the uninitiated at 20,287 feet) along with Mt Hunter (around 14,400 feet) and Mt Foraker (a bit over 17,000 feet).  And I also love the mindset of the local folks; it’s part of what initially drew me to Alaska.  Alaskans tend to be down to earth, tolerant, friendly and self-sufficient.  In the more rural areas everyone looks out for their neighbors; it’s a given.  Just yesterday my neighbor to the south who has a place on Question Lake stopped by to ask me if I’d check up on her place across the next five days as she’ll be heading north around Denali to do some hunting.  Of course I immediately agreed; I’m out at least once a day with the dogs anyway so just swinging by her property is no problem.  I will also make a quick survey before turning in for the night.  We hardly know each other yet I was honored she would ask me; I know I cut a somewhat large profile because of my almost daily walks with my two large dogs but still I was pleased she would think to ask me.  This is classic Alaska and part of what I truly love about the people of ‘The Great Land’!
  • What do I dislike the most about living in rural Talkeetna? Another tie: I abhor the mosquitoes and I am sick to death of the lack of real darkness across the past three months!  The summer influx of tourists into Talkeetna ranks a very close second..!  I am learning to deal with the mosquitoes and also have learned the necessity of completely sealing up my bedroom windows against light.  Knowing what a negative the continual daylight has been for me across the past three months I’m hopeful I will be a bit better prepared come next spring.  There’s little to be done regarding the tourists; like so many locals I limit my trips into the village as much as possible from middle May through middle September.  After that point the village once again becomes the sleepy albeit comfortable place all us locals so love.
  • What do I most miss from my lower 48 life? Actually almost nothing although since I asked once again it’s a tie, this time between personal interaction with so many friends I left behind and the absence of really severe weather up here in the form of thunderstorms and super-cell activity.  We do see a few thunderstorms but they are mainly along the Alaska Range and the Talkeetna Mountains; the strongest of these storms is but a pale shadow to the vibrant storms I enjoyed in the Cincinnati area and in SE Michigan.
  • What do I miss least about living in the lower 48? This is impossible to answer with even five items although two major things that immediately came to mind were the high population density which contributed to so much congestion and the noise pollution.  Right behind would be 80+ F air temps, 70+ F dew points and light pollution.  Thus far we’ve seen just three days with temps at or above 80 F and since May we’ve been averaging around two and a half days a week with temps in the 70’s; otherwise the highs are in the 60’s.
  • What has most surprised me about my new lifestyle? So many things!  Despite my previous Alaskan experiences and all my planning I’d have to say my ill-preparedness for living semi-rural in south central Alaska.  And I’ve had invaluable help and advice from Holly (my good friend and realtor) along with so many other local folks.  I knew I’d have a huge learning curve but even so I grossly underestimated my lack of experience and knowledge.  Rural living in and of itself has been an eye-opening experience from learning the schedule of mail so I can maximize my trips to the PO (I have no local delivery) to understanding that folks just do not use lot/house numbers for describing their location.  Although my place is technically ‘15158 East Barge Drive’ no one recognizes this descriptor; I found it much better to simply say I live in ‘Dan and Erica Valentine’s old place’.  It seems most of the locals knew these people as the Valentine family has strong roots in the Talkeetna area and Dan Valentine is an Alaska State Trooper currently living on Kodiak Island with his family.  I also still marvel at the lengths of the mornings and evenings; it often seems as though it will never get dark even in the winter and the morning light can stretch on as well.  This, obviously, is a function of living in the higher latitudes and is the opposite of what is observed near the equator when mornings just seem to spring into existence and nights seem to just happen almost instantaneously.
  • What challenges have been most predominant? Probably the single biggest challenge involves getting myself integrated into the community.  I want to be a ‘giver’ in the sense of volunteering hence my efforts in supporting KTNA and the Upper Susitna Food Pantry.  But I also want to develop more personal relationships with the local folks and perhaps put more of my experience and talents (i.e. 18 years in food manufacturing, 12 years in corporate IT field support, etc.) to use.  There has been a whole range of things I’ve learned and I have many, many times that amount yet to comprehend and make part of my lifestyle.  Being ‘bear aware’ is a good example; from early May through early November the bears are out and about so it’s vital to always keep one’s awareness of the immediate surroundings in mind.  I have a small sunflower seed bird feeder just off the north end of my front porch.  It’s not recommended one feed birds during ‘bear season’ as the feeders can become dinner plates but I decided I would try to continue feeding my feather friends as I have a large collection of Chickadees (both Black Capped and Boreal), Juncos, hairy woodpeckers, Red Breasted Nuthatches and similar.  Thus far I’ve seen no issues but I always look out my front door before I open it just to make sure there’s not a bear at the feeder.  There is no trash pickup and hence all garbage must be either burned or hauled to the local refuse collection point.  I do try to save money by burning most flammable objects but if they involved food in any manner I must store them inside the house until I can get them out to the burn barrel and completely incinerated.  During the winter I tend to get a bit sloppy and will leave trash out on the front porch but I have to remind myself that once it begins to warm up I have to resume my ‘bear awareness’.

But there have been a myriad of changes within myself which also translate to how I view my new lifestyle and those around me.  I really do now exist on ‘Talkeetna Time’ and I’m more than okay with this concept.  I get the important stuff handled in a timely manner but I no longer sweat the small stuff or allow extraneous exterior influences to impact my lifestyle in a major manner.  My cell phone is fine for basic communication but I still prefer to talk to people at the Talkeetna Post Office, Cubby’s or the staff and volunteers at KTNA and the Pantry.  I do lean heavily on email and Skype because I have some family and many good friends still living in the lower 48 but I find myself shying away from ‘technological’ forms of communication.  I’ve found my awareness of all things ‘Nature’ has increased enormously; I do so enjoy charting the local weather, star gazing on cold winter nights and just watching Mother Nature’s abundance unfold around my little piece of serenity on East Barge Drive.  I learned the amazing trees that make up the boreal forest do much to mitigate the effects of wind at ground level just as they drive the much higher humidity because of their transpiration.  In keeping with the ‘natural side’ I’ve come to really enjoy and value my two canine companions (Anana – my female Alaskan Malamute and Qanuk – my male German Shepherd Dog); when walking with them they almost become extensions of my own senses as I watch them sample air currents for the tiniest traces of nearby wildlife.  They love living in Alaska and it was a true pleasure to be able to introduce my Anana to the home of her breed.

‘Talkeetna Time’ has really helped me retreat from the rather harried and unnecessarily complex lifestyle I endured in the lower 48; in so doing its also given me a lot of time to reflect and be introspective.  Living surrounded by so much Nature has definitely made me so much more aware of natural processes and has fostered a real need to be more ecologically wise.  I so wish Alaska recycled but apparently the economics of doing so have made the practice prohibitively expensive.  I am no fan of burning so much but trying to haul all of this to the refuse station would be extremely expensive and in some cases just isn’t possible.  At least appliances and electronics are recycled although this requires hauling such items to the Best Buy which is in Anchorage and hence 110 miles south.  It’s difficult to live immersed in so much undisturbed forest and not begin to resonate with the natural rhythms of the land.  Although I‘ve always been a sky watcher since moving here I am even more observant of both the day and night skies.  I’m slowly learning the most unusual weather patterns of my new home; most of my observationally acquired knowledge from the lower 48 is useless up here as meteorology in the higher latitudes is indeed very different.  I’m slowly learning about the local fauna; to my surprise there are a myriad of herbs and plants that are edible and some that are downright healthy.

Born and raised in Michigan and living mainly in the Midwest I grew up a ‘flat lander’ with the only area I lived in which exhibited real ‘character’ in terms of ups and downs being SW Ohio.  Since moving up here I’m slowly getting used to the idea that very little is flat and the land even in river valleys has no shortage of hills and dales.  In addition this area is prone to clouds and precipitation in varying amounts and types.  Like folks living in the NW of the lower 48 I’m learning to not allow rain to interfere with my outdoor activities; dressing for wet conditions is important but the mindset that a bit of rain isn’t going to prevent me from walking the dogs is even more vital.  The same is even more important in winter; up here having proper winter clothing can be a matter of life and death.  I’ve discovered I can handle -20 F air temps in comfort with the proper gear and I suspect I could weather -30 F and lower temps without much discomfort.  It’s important I acknowledge that I moved to Alaska to see real cold and snow; for whatever reason I’m built for the cold and know of no one more able to endure cold temps in good cheer.  The flip side of this is I abhor warm temps especially combined with high humidity.  I will gladly wear shorts with a tee shirt and sandals in air temps right down to freezing but as soon as the air temp crosses the middle 70’s I’m uncomfortable.  Combine such air temps with dew points in the upper 60’s and I’m just plain hot and unhappy.  So it’s no surprise I enjoy Talkeetna’s winter; I did learn that as soon as the air temp drops below -15 F I need to cover bare skin if there’s even just a 5 mph breeze.  My canine companions enjoy the cold as well although Qanuk suffered from paw issues when we’d spend 45 minutes outside in -12 F or colder air temps.  He so loves being outdoors he wouldn’t let me know when his paws were hurting; only after coming inside would I see him begin to limp around and whine.  Because of this I’ve learned I must regulate his exposure to the snow and ice once air temps drop below 10 F.  Anana, on the other hand, loves the cold and is fine outdoors even at -22 F.  I was surprised to see her grow long white fur from between her paw pads; it finally dawned on me this was a Mal adaptation to cold exposure and helped insulate the areas between her pads which is where Qanuk suffered his problems.  Nature is indeed amazing..!  I’m prepared for this winter with booties for Qanuk and even a two pair for Anana just in case.

Without question I’m living a dream with my retirement to rural south central Alaska and there is hardly a day that passes without some aspect of my new home amazing me.  Knowing I have so much yet to learn isn’t daunting or a negative but rather a challenge I relish.  Without question I’ve discovered a lifestyle that wouldn’t appeal to most folks but suits me just fine.  I cannot imagine ever living in the lower 48 again and I surely will never live in any manner but rural.  It may have taken me sixty years to finally find my place but I’m okay with this as many folks never do make such a journey.  And my one predominate wish is simply that I have many more years to revel in the majesty and freedom of my beloved Alaska.

A Soggy Summer Solstice…

On Saturday, June 21st at 02:51 AKDT we arrived at the Summer Solstice; in the following image I fought off the mosquitoes to get a picture of my place just a couple hours after that time which I figured was close enough!  The view is looking west from my driveway and includes my Alaskan Malamute (Anana) who makes a living always being in the way; I found it interesting to note the bright sections of the lower western sky seen through the boreal forest (just above the Escape) that surrounds this area.  It almost appears as though the sun had just set but in reality it was already 40 minutes past sunrise!!  For those interested Talkeetna experienced a sunrise on Friday, June 20th at 04:05 AKDT and saw the sun set at 00:00 AKDT on June 21st for a total of 19 hours 55 minutes of direct sunlight.  This will continue for the next four days before the daylight slowly starts to diminish as we advance towards the Autumnal Equinox.  With the passing of this annual event I’ve now seen all the equinoxes and solstices in my new home; a kind of milestone for my Alaskan existence.

Image

Talkeetna just loves the Summer Solstice and there were many small celebrations of the event; a number of locals indulged in playing softball without any lights – they weren’t needed – well past midnight.  Most of the local facilities had some kind of celebration with live music being a favorite.  I’m sure more than a few drank to excess but then given how light it was it would’ve been easy to walk home or even hitch-hike on the Spur as folks were still driving around at that time.  Up here hitchhiking is a safe means of travel and I regularly pick up locals on the Spur as well as the occasional tourist or visitor.  I didn’t hear of any issues which was good but not unexpected.  During my Friday evening newscast I did read a warning regarding a grizzly which had just killed a moose calf at the northern tip of Christiansen Lake between the water and Christiansen Lake Road.  This lake is just to the east of the Talkeetna Airport which is located in ‘downtown’ Talkeetna.  The grizzly was expected to remain in the area for a while so locals were being warned to give the area a wide berth; I also used the announcement to remind folks that its once again time to be ‘bear aware’.  Across the next five months I’m sure KTNA will broadcast some similar warnings as well as information on specific verified sightings of local grizzlies.  At the ‘KTNA Volunteer Appreciation Picnic’ on Thursday, June 12th I spoke to a volunteer who was riding her recumbent into town for her music show when a young grizzly boar popped out of the weeds right at the railroad crossing on the south edge of town; she said it thankfully just looked at her and strolled off south on the tracks.  Large wildlife is a way of life in this area and so no one gets too excited about such situations unless there’s aggressive activity tied to the sightings.

Anyway, because I was up early I did get the dogs out for a 35 minute walk; thankfully I applied my ‘Deep Woods Off’ before heading out as even with this repellant there was a cloud of mosquitoes buzzing around me and they followed me the entire time.  While I do find the hoards of tourists a bit irritating they cannot hold a candle to the hoards of blood thirsty mosquitoes; even the dogs get fed up with being buzzed by them and will snap at them when they fly close enough.  In general they are immune to the flying ‘vampires’ thanks to their thick coats although the insides of their ears and their bellies do get bitten infrequently.  I was pleased we did get in the early walk as the overcast thickened and by 08:00 it began to rain; just drizzle at first but it soon strengthened into a steady albeit light shower which lasted all day.  We need the moisture so I was happy when I could report a 24 hour rain total of 0.49″ to CoCoRaHS (Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow reporting network) in my 07:00 daily report this morning.  With the rain and a temp hovering in the upper 40’s this was a bit cool for a Summer Solstice but not too bad.  Interestingly it was a far cry from Friday afternoon’s weather which was blazing sunshine with a peak air temps of 73.1 F which is easily five degrees above normal.

I’m slowly learning to exist up here in the warmer months but without question I prefer the winter to what I’ve seen thus far during this fledgling summer.  I don’t think I’ll ever get used to the continual light; it never even gets ‘dark’ from early May through early August; the best we see in terms of ‘darkness’ is what’s termed ‘civil twilight’.  Since late-May its been possible to read a book outdoors at 02:00 without any additional light.  When I’ve had some trouble sleeping I’ve taken the dogs for walks around this time without issue although since the bears have become more common I’m no longer doing this because they are more active during times we humans tend to be absent and 02:00 is definitely such a time.  Thus far my single small sunflower seed feeder has remained untouched by anything larger than a Red Squirrel along with the Chickadees, Nuthatches, Juncos and woodpeckers its set up to feed.  Even so I always look out the front door window before I exit onto the porch as its possible it could attract a bear.  Alaska Fish & Game recommends not putting out bird feeders and water sources during bear season so I am flying in the face of that wisdom but I also want to encourage the birds to hang around so I’m just going to give it a go for now.  If I get any sense it’s attracting bears let alone see any evidence of bruin activity it will be immediately taken down.  I have to be very circumspect regarding my burning; anything with a possible food odor has to be stored inside the house until I can immediately get it to the burn barrel and thoroughly incinerated.  I’ve been told every year someone loses sight of this necessity and ends up with a frightening bear encounter.  I think we all get a bit lax from November through early May when the bears are hibernating.  I did get my front porch netted in but I’m not satisfied with the fragile nature of the netting especially with two large dogs so come fall I’m going to purchase rolls of actual screening which is much more robust and redo the job.  I was hoping to get by with the cheaper and lighter weight stuff but that just isn’t cutting it.  Getting the dogs inside without bringing in mosquitoes is something I still haven’t mastered.  I do force them to remain briefly in the mud room; often any ‘tag-alongs’ will fly off their fur and I can then swat them or use the concentrated pyrethrin spray to knock them out.  Leaving just one lousy mosquito alive in the house will make for a bad time at night; I’ve learned its much wiser to take them out ASAP.

Without question I learn something new almost every day regarding living in rural south central Alaska; providing I live for another few decades I might actually get to the point where I’m fairly well experienced in such a lifestyle.  I do know for sure this majestic land will never stop surprising or amazing me; Alaska truly is ‘The Great Land’ just as the Athabascan people named her…’Alyeska’!